An air compressor is a device that converts power (using an electric motor, diesel or gasoline engine, etc.) into potential energy stored in compressed air (compressed air).

Compressors can also be classified according to their design and principle of operation :

  • Single-stage reciprocating compressor
  • Two-stage reciprocating compressor
  • Compound compressor
  • Rotary-screw compressor
  • Rotary vane pump
  • Scroll compressor
  • Turbo compressor
  • Centrifugal compressor



Compressor is a mechanical device that functions to increase fluid pressure. The purpose of increasing the pressure is so that it can be applied to the system. Broadly speaking, it can be said that compressed air is the driving source for machines in industry.

The compressor was invented by Otto Von Guiricke, a German born in Magdeburg (20 November 1602 – 11 May 1686) at the age of 83 in 1650.

A high-pressure air pump is usually called a compressor, for low-pressure applications such as ventilation, heating and air conditioning, it is called a fan or blower.

In 1654 Otto Von Guiricke invented a vacuum pump consisting of a two-way air piston and cylinder which was designed to draw air out of the ship.



Piston air Compressor or also commonly called Reciprocating air compressor, Piston (Torak) is driven by a motor or engine, Piston moves up and down and is equipped with a Suction valve and Exhaust valve, most of the Pistons consist of 2 V-shaped cylinders or 3 W-shaped cylinders or usually a small Air Compressor consisting of 1 cylinder, the Piston Air Compressor can be divided into 2 parts, namely:




Some people misinterpret the type of Piston Air Compressor, where they think that the two piston air compressors mean the Two Stage type, apparently not, it looks the same, but what distinguishes the Single Stage Piston Air Compressor and the Two Stage Piston Air Compressor is just how it works. to compress air. Starting from the air that is sucked through the air filter, when the piston moves downward, the air is pulled in and when the piston moves up, the air is compressed / compressed. There are two valves (Valve) that take care of air intake and exhaust

The valve is only one-way (usually located inside the cylinder head) which ensures that the inhaled air cannot return back out through through the suction hole, Likewise the air pushed out through the exhaust hole cannot flow back when the piston moves downward, but instead directly enter into the Air Receiver Tank.


This Two Stage Piston Air Compressor has a way of working almost the same as the Single Stage Piston Air Compressor, what distinguishes it is the existence of two large and small cylinders, the first stage of the air is compressed in a large cylinder, high air volume but low pressure. Then the air is lowered in temperature through the air cooler before proceeding to stage two


Rotary Screw Air Compressor works by using two rotors (helical Screws) male and female rotors, as well as the Piston Air Compressor, the type of Screw Air Compressor also uses a motor or engine to move the two rotors, the rotor has a very special design, rotates in the opposite direction. direction with very little distance between the two rotors.





Scroll Air Compressor has two spiral elements and only one moving part, One moves in an eccentric circle and one is stationary, Scroll Air Compressor is usually used for refrigeration compressors, i.e. to pump Freon, Scroll Air Compressor has very low sound , The design is simple and has almost no even minimal maintenance, but the Scroll Air Compressor Type has a low Air Delivery.







Apart from piston type compressors, screw compressors are one of the most widely used in industry. The screw compressor working system uses a screw system, the air that enters through the inlet goes into the screw system which rotates and compresses the air. The compressed air is flowed to the air storage tank (screw compressors are different from piston compressors whose units already have a tank).

This type of compressor is indeed more expensive than the piston type compressor, more durable and stubborn in use, this type of compressor can run 24 hours non-stop, in contrast to the piston compressor which uses a maximum of around 8 hours. A screw compressor has a much larger air delivery discharge, usually compared to a piston compressor.

Screw compressors are divided into two types :


It is called a Doble screw because it has a system of two threads that are close together and rotate in the same direction so that the air entering through the inlet port is compressed by 2 rotating threads.





The single screw system is almost the same as the Double, what distinguishes it is the use of one screw sandwiched between two gear components that rotate and compress the air.


In addition to knowing the various types of air compressors, we should also know some of the equipment for air compressors that are tailored to the use of the air compressors.

  1. Air dryer
    Used to dry the air after leaving the air compressor, commonly used for high quality painting, air pressure supply for pneumatics, air tools, etc.
  2. Desicant dryer
    The function is the same as the air dryer above, only the efficiency of this tool is higher than the air dryer, commonly used for food and pharmaceutical machines.
  3. Air filter
    This tool is used to filter dirt particles that come out of the air compressor, its use is usually installed before the air dryer or desicant dryer. There are several measures of the density of the dirt particle filter in microns. This tool is often misunderstood that it can filter the water that comes out of the air compressor, maybe because over time there is water in the glass in this tool, even though the water is the result of air pressure condensed in the glass, like water that occurs in the air compressor tank. Even though this tool is completely unable to filter the water molecules that come out of the air compressor.
  4. Regulator
    This tool is used to regulate / stabilize the pressure coming out of the air compressor. This tool is usually connected to the air filter.
  5. Lubrikator
    This tool is used to add lubricant in the air that comes out of the air compressor. It is usually used when the air compressor is used to move pneumatic units or air tools, this tool is usually connected to the air filter and regulator.

PT. August Indonesia Jaya

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